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SLC VETERINARY STUDY 
BY NICOLE ELIZABETH BRANCONNIER 
SLC is at 43 Highland Road Merrimac MA 01860 United States. The classification of horses as hot, warm, and cold bloods can be confusing. As mammals all horses are warm-blooded – they don’t need to lie around in the sun to summon energy for the day, although some do like to! The categorisation is crude, but essentially groups horses according to general temperament and conformation. Cold bloods comprise of the tall, heavy horse breeds used in draft. Breeders selected for a breed that would be suitable for pulling wagons, carriages, and plows. The breeding effort over a long time resulted in an animal that is large, strong, muscular, and resistant. Given the nature of work they were intended to do, cold bloods had to be calm, gentle, and patient. Cold-blooded horses were the type used by medieval knights to carry the great weight of armor. Horses from Flanders were particularly suited as knights' horses, and their blood was found in the English "Great Horse." These horses are distinguished by their great size, massive bone structure and very broad feet Coldblood horses are the heavy horses, often referred to as “gentle giants” because of their stature and placid temperaments. Cold bloods have a characteristic walk. They move slowly in longer and ‘flatter’ strides. They tend to be placid and kind, with easy-going temperaments that make them suitable for riders of all abilities. Today, cold bloods are the most popular breeds for riding. But they are also gaining prominence competing in the show rings. They are becoming popular with pleasure and trail riders. And because of their friendly nature, cold blooded horses are easy to handle. Even children can work with them.Typical examples of cold blood breeds are the Percheron, Ardennes, Frisian, Icelandic, Shires, Budweiser Clydesdale, or Belgian.They were bred in harsh climates and are hardy with very heavy bone and feathering. They can handle the turbulent weather very well. They tend to have slower reaction times compared to warmbloods and hotbloods, and can take longer to train, but coldbloods are not unintelligent. Some can have a stubborn streak. Although different breeds will have their own individual histories, most coldblood horses descend from ancient European breeds used for heavy work such as farming, hauling, and war. Their large bodies and colossal strength allowed them to pull ploughs and agricultural implements, work for breweries, and carry knights in heavy armour into battle. Conformationally coldblood horses reflect their original use of pulling and carrying heavy loads. They have large legs and shoulders, kind eyes, and some breeds have a slight Roman profile to their heads. Their feet are often large and they can have an abundance of feather. Thicker coats enable them to withstand harsh climates and be easy to manage in cold conditions. Hot bloods comprise of ancient horse breeds originating from the Middle East. They were mainly bred for speed and agility. But the breeders also focused on the horses’ elegance, frame and pattern maintenance.This resulted in light, refined, thin-skinned, and long-legged horses. Today hot blooded horses are mostly used in racing. But you will find them in the show ring and trails as well. Their close interaction with people has made the hot blood breeds quite intelligent. They are high-spirited, hot-tempered, bold, and quick learners. They also tend to be nervous and energetic. Ever vigilant, the hot-blooded horses react quickly to unfamiliar circumstances. That’s why they require an experienced person to handle and work on their excitable and fired-up temperament.Additionally, hot blood horses are vulnerable to stormy weather. This is due to their Middle East origin where they are more at home in desert conditions.For many years they were used as a symbol of power and wealth by the North African tribes. Hot bloods are among the most expensive horses. Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse breeds that originate in Europe.They were bred by crossing the Arabians and Thoroughbreds with carriage or war horses. The result was a breed larger than the hot-blooded but more refined than the cold bloods. Their temperament of warm blood horses is in-between the cold and hot bloods.Warmbloods are popular dressage horses because of their athletic ability from the “hot” blood and the temperament of the “cold” blood.Today, warmbloods are high-quality sports horses. You will see them in many show arenas all over the world. Hot bloods are spirited horses with high speed and endurance. Cold bloods are heavy horses that are great for slow and heavy work. They are used for draft and agricultural work. Warmbloods are a mixed breed of the cold and hot blooded horses. A grade horse is a horse whose parentage is unknown, unidentifiable, or of significantly mixed breeding. This differs from purebred animals of known bloodlines and also differs from deliberately crossbred animals that are produced with an intent of either creating a new breed of horse or an animal with characteristics that deliberately combine the strengths of two different breeds. Many grade horses are the result of unintentional or accidental breedings, though in some cases, they are the result of a planned breeding of a stallion and a mare, but animals who themselves are of uncertain bloodlines. Dressage a French term, most commonly translated to mean "training") is a form of riding performed in exhibition and competition, as well as an art sometimes pursued solely for the sake of mastery. As an equestrian sport defined by the International Equestrian Federation, dressage is described as "the highest expression of horse training" where "horse and rider are expected to perform from memory a series of predetermined movements."Experienced horsepeople can usually spot a breed type in most grade horses.  eg wraps are used to provide tendon support. Some trainers believe that wraps add support to the tendons of horses' legs when they run. However, no research has confirmed this to be a fact. But they do help provide support to weak tendons or tendons that have been injured. Just because we see bandages around the barn frequently doesn’t mean bandaging and wrapping are easy, and that bandages and wraps are interchangeable and always appropriate. Before you reach for the nearest roll of Vetrap or grab that splint boot out of your tack trunk, look at some of the basic principles behind bandaging or wrapping equine limbs. Owners commonly apply bandages to shield recent wounds or tendon or -ligament injuries, to protect during shipping or performance, and to prevent fluid accumulation in the limb (“stocking up”) during stall rest dressing application, immobilization, and support to this list. However, bandaging and wrapping, while useful, are not wholly benign. Improper application and/or use of an inappropriate bandaging material can do more harm than leaving the leg unwrapped. Topical dressing, which might be a liniment, medicated pad, ointment, or powder. These are generally used in horses with injuries or skin conditions. Thick cotton padding such as practical (roll) cotton, layers of sheet cotton, cast padding, or fabric quilt or pillow wraps. Compressive/securing layer such as stable/track bandage, Vetrap, gauze, polo wrap, elastic tape, or stockinette.  As for protection, owners might use Velcro-style shipping boots, single-layer devices that provide skin protection but little compression. In contrast, some wraps and boots intended for performance might provide focal protection suited to a particular sport. And some might not look like a traditional or prefabricated bandage at all. For some wounds, such as those in areas that are difficult or detrimental to immobilize or where topical medication application is the main requirement, Hanson describes a minimalist wound covering technique known as the “Jolly method.” This technique uses Velcro tabs to secure a wound dressing and a stockinette tube as covering. A bandage can prevent contamination, provide compression to minimize swelling, hold topical medications against the wound, reduce motion of the wound edges, and keep the exudates (pus) in contact with the wound. Although exudate triggers an “ick” response in many people, that yellowish slime serves a critical purpose in the healing process. Many horse owners “see exudate and assume (the wound) must be infected, and so they get their iodine scrub and clean it,” but Hanson cautions against this. By scrubbing a healing wound, “they’ve removed all the good juice that allows it to heal.” Excessive swelling or motion of the wound edges can delay wound margin contracture, a major step in the healing process. A bandage that applies compression can help prevent fluid from accumulating in the limb in response to injury and reduce this swelling. To reduce movement, however, the veterinarian might need to amend the basic bandage design. A standard soft wrap-type bandage often does not provide sufficient immobilization regardless of how thickly or firmly it is applied. Where immobilization is required, Hanson recommends using a splint or bandage cast. For most limb wounds, applying both a primary and secondary bandage. Once cleans and debrides the wound appropriately, Hanson recommends applying a medicated dressing (such as an acemannan hydrogel or calcium alginate dressing) as the primary bandage to promote autolytic debridement (use of the body’s own enzymes and moisture to liquefy and remove dead tissue). In most cases he will cover this dressing with a thick layer of padding and secure it with a wrap material. If the area requires immobilization he will then apply a secondary bandage, such as a splint or a semisoft bandage cast. Wrapping legs with suspected or diagnosed tendon or ligament injuries has its pros and cons. A wrap can control swelling and provide some support to a leg with what Hanson refers to as a classic mid-tendon bow. “However, if the injury was the result of a bandage bow (caused by a too-tight or inproperly applied wrap), I probably would not use a wrap, Properly done, the groom will rub the topical treatment into the horse's legs while delivering a deep massage. This enhances blood flow, thereby reducing inflammation and soreness. (Grooms often refer to their occupation as “rubbing horses” because it is an integral part of their job.) Padding must be used under the standing wrap to provide support and protection for the horse's leg by cushioning it.  Everyone who ever wrapped a leg has been warned, “Do it right or you'll bow the horse.” McLellan said bowing the horse's tendon won't happen if the standing wrap is applied uniformly. He explained how a bandage bow occurs. Start the standing wrap on the side of the leg, midway between the knee and the fetlock. Spiral the wrap toward the midline of the horse, going downward to the fetlock and then back up to the knee, fastening it there. In fact, I see so many bandages-gone-wrong that I sometimes hesitate to recommend a wrap at all, even when it’s needed. The Basic Pressure Wrap If your horse experiences a wound, has an unusual swelling, or undergoes surgery on a lower leg, you’ll probably have to bandage the leg using a basic pressure wrap. Here are two examples of common wrapping errors. To begin with, this single layer of cotton doesn’t provide enough padding to protect your horse’s leg from the pressure that’s likely to be applied by additional layers of bandage. Vetrap (the 3M version of long, stretchy bandage material), applied directly over the single layer of cotton, makes it even worse, especially when it’s pulled as tightly as is illustrated here. An overly tight bandage can cause pressure sores on your horse’s skin or damage to underlying soft tissues. In extreme cases, a too-tight bandage can compromise the blood supply to your horse’s skin, which can cause his skin to die and slough away. Eventually, this type of injury may lead to the ugly white “bandage scars” we often see on horses’ lower legs. The double layer of cotton is great, but it can’t be loose and lumpy, as illustrated here. they just allow the bandage to bunch up when it slips down the leg. A loose, lumpy bandage that slips is just as likely to cause tendon and ligament injuries as a too-tight one. Finally, if your horse has a wound, there’s nothing on this bandage to seal the top and bottom and prevent dirt and debris from getting inside. Here’s how it’s done. Several (two or three) layers of cotton, wrapped smoothly around the leg, provide plenty of padding to protect the underlying tissues from pressure damage. And a stiff layer of 6-inch brown gauze wrapped snugly over this amount of padding helps to set the wrap safely in place. Notice the 1-inch edge of cotton that’s left exposed at the top and bottom of the wrap. By leaving this exposed cotton, you’ll prevent pressure damage from tight gauze against the skin. For the right amount of pressure, follow the brown gauze with a layer of Vetrap stretched approximately 50 percent. Remember to leave the 1-inch margin at the top and bottom with this layer too, preventing direct contact with the Vetrap against your horse’s skin. Finally, seal the top and bottom of the bandage with elastic tape that’ll prevent debris from getting inside to contaminate the wound and help hold the wrap in place. This type of tape is less elastic than Vetrap, so won’t act like a rubber band against the skin. Additionally, its adhesive underside helps form a seal. As a general rule of thumb, if you use the proper layers (adequate cotton, 6-inch brown gauze, Vetrap, and elastic tape), and your bandage looks smooth and snug when you’re finished bandaging—your wrap would probably pass the test. You’ll have protected your horse’s leg, and even more important, will have done no harm. You’ll need to protect the area with a bandage but a basic pressure wrap won’t do. Although this bandage looks good at first glance, you wrap a wound this way today, by tomorrow the bandage is likely to slip down to the ground. It may seem like overkill, but the only really effective way to apply a bandage to a wound above the knee or hock is to apply a “stack wrap” that covers the whole leg. Begin by setting the first stages of a basic lower-limb bandage with two to three layers of cotton and 6-inch brown gauze (just like the basic bandage described above). Next, apply a similar bandage that overlaps the bandage on the lower leg by 3 to 4 inches. The lower portion of the bandage will help hold the upper part in place. Follow with a layer of Vetrap extending from top to bottom, again leaving a 1-inch margin of exposed cotton to avoid pressure directly against the skin. When you run your brown gauze and your Vetrap around the knee, avoid pulling too tightly across the “bump” at the back (the accessory carpal bone) to avoid a pressure sore. If you’re wrapping a hind leg, take the same precaution when wrapping over the point of the hock. Finally, seal the top and bottom of the bandage with elastic tape to further prevent slippage and protect against contamination. When your horse has a very small wound, one that’s almost healed, or you just need to protect something temporarily, you might want to apply a light temporary bandage instead of a full bandage. There’s a right way and a wrong way to do that, too. A a tight layer of Vetrap is placed directly against the skin. It’s a problem we see all the time. That Vetrap acts just like a rubber band stretched tightly around your horse’s leg, and is likely to cause a serious pressure injury. Wrap like this! This temporary bandage has been applied with elastic tape instead of Vetwrap. The elastic tape has less stretch, and will stay put with less pressure due to its adhesive properties. It’s a much safer light-bandage option. Helped your hoofed friend get back on track with HomeoVet EquioPathics Nose Relief Horse Supplement. It provides support for a healthy nasal and sinus tract when your horse is not feeling well. This supplement aids with a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing and congestion. It also contains no harsh chemicals and is safe for use on young, pregnant and nursing animals. HomeoVet EquioPathics Nose Relief Horse Supplement can be added to your sidekick’s food and water or directly into her mouth. Cage traps also may be known as box traps. They are made of wire mesh, come in different lengths, and have doors that vary in size. Rodent infestations (especially mice or rats) can grow rapidly so it’s important to tackle the problem before it turns into a much larger problem. f you cannot resolve a conflict with an animal by other means such as removing the attractant, installing a barrier, or using a scare tactic the last option is to trap it. Trapping is rarely a permanent solution if other animals of the same species are in the area, and food and/or shelter remain available. It is appropriate to trap an animal in or around a home or property when there is an emergency situation, when you must remove a problem animal, or when trapping is the only practical solution. Modern traps fall into two main categories: killer-type traps and live traps. Killer-type traps are designed to kill the captured animal quickly, much like a common snap trap used with house mice. Live-holding traps include cage traps, foothold traps and snares. Homeowners most often use cage traps when they have conflicts with wildlife in their yards, gardens and houses. In addition, cage traps are the only type permitted in certain situations in urban or suburban settings, as they will not injure people, pets or other non-targeted animals. Cage traps come in a variety of designs, in sizes that range from those that capture mice to those that capture large dogs. The homeowner who is dealing with a human/wildlife conflict often uses a cage trap, also referred to as a live trap. The common cage trap used to capture mammals works when an animal steps on the treadle, or pan, located inside the trap. When the treadle is tripped, it causes the closing of a door, or doors, at the end(s) of the trap. (Fig. 1) You can purchase cage traps at hardware stores, farm supply centers and over the Internet; search for "live traps" or "cage traps". Some rental business and wildlife damage control companies rent them. Before using a trap, make sure it is clean, as you need to prevent the spread of potentially dangerous organisms. A dirty trap should be washed, disinfected with a bleach solution (one part bleach to nine parts of water; then let the trap soak for 20 minutes), and thoroughly rinsed. To protect yourself, always wear gloves when handling the trap. When you have trapped an adult animal, stand the trap on end so you can see the animal's underside. If there are enlarged teats that are relatively free of hair, you have a nursing female. Release her so she can tend to her young. If you plan on releasing an animal, do not trap it during the winter or poor weather. An animal expends extra energy when trapped and it may not also be able to cope with inclement conditions. Even if you release it, it may die soon after. Most of these techniques require training. In addition, several are not available to the do-it-yourselfer. If you are knowledgeable about wildlife, have identified the species to be trapped, and feel you can handle the situation in a humane and legal way, follow the steps below. See Table 1, following, for specific recommendations regarding each species. Set the cage trap as near to the den as possible, in the animal's pathway, or in the area of damage. When locating the trap, consider the possibility of young children approaching the trapped animal, theft of the trap, or damage to the trap by vandals. If the best site is on concrete or another hard surface, place a piece of plywood or some other protective material under the trap to prevent the animal from damaging its paws when it tries to dig its way out. To prevent raccoons and opossums from toppling the trap, make sure the protective material extends at least eight inches on each side of the trap and do not place the trap next to shrubs or other objects that the animals could grab.A captured animal often defecates in the trap. The biological risk is minimal but still real, so if you are setting a trap outside, set it at some distance from a shallow well, garden, playpen, or area where a dog is tethered. Inside the house, place traps on top of at least ten sheets of newspaper.Place a tennis ball in the trap to give a large animal a way to release energy and frustration; a piece of wood will provide a small animal something to chew. Put the sweet-smelling and tasty bait inside and outside (lure them inside) of the cage door. Peanut and sausage are all good choices, it’s better to keep the bait fresh. (It is highly recommended to hang the bait on the hook, or put a small amount of (1oz) bait behind and on the pedal) Simply raise the door and attach the lever to the trigger bar to set. Place the bait on the hanging bar. When the animal enters the trap to eat the bait, the trigger bar will trigger the door to shut. Does not kill or cause any injury to the captured animal mouse, rat, mice, squirrel, and pets like a hamster. Easily release or free the captured pets or any animals caught unintentionally. No poisons, chemicals, sprays, electricity, or glues are used. Safe for use around children and pets. Suitable for indoor or outdoor use. Our traps are engineered to have a very high success rate. Once the pest animal is caught, the locking mechanism ensures that it will not escape. After releasing the captured animal, you can reuse the trap again saving your money. Re-Usable and rust-proof. The metal is coated to prevent rust and making the trap ideal for an outdoor greater look. Our cages design is not easy to escape light-weighted material structure, small mesh openings, and the door locked tightly to ensure the trapped rodent animals no way to escape easily. But it could quickly capture those nuisance animals without hurting or killing them. Safe for Pets and wildlife. it's fully safe for these animals. The trap is made from high-quality wire. Its durable and corrosion-resistant quality is different from other brands. The wire material is lightweight. Its Use for All-Weather/Outdoor and Indoor. Its structure is a rectangular shape and has an attractive look. Durable the finest wire mesh won't be bitten open by those small animal's teeth. Our cages design is not easy to escape light-weighted material structure, small mesh openings, and the door locked tightly to ensure the trapped rodent animals no way to escape easily. But it could quickly capture those nuisance animals without hurting or killing them. Safe for Pets and wildlife. it's fully safe for these animals. Anchor the trap by placing a cinder block or other heavy object on top, pounding rebar stakes into the ground at the corners, or wiring/clamping the trap to a stable object. An animal will not enter a tipsy trap; misfires teach it to avoid entering a second time.Set the trap and then trip it several times to be sure the cage is steady and functioning properly. Trip the trap by using a pen or pencil, sticking an end through the side of the cage and pushing down on the treadle. If the doors do not work fast enough, place small stones or other weights on top of the door to make it drop more quickly.Use plenty of bait so that the targeted animal can see and smell it easily. (See the section below  "Capturing a Wary or Trap-Smart Animal" for detailed information regarding baiting). In summer, a trap set where the sun can beat down on it can cause the animal to dehydrate rapidly, suffer from the heat, or die. Animal Humane Society helps critters in need find loving homes each year. We take in every animal surrendered to us regardless of its health, age, breed, or behavior. Last year, more than 93% of the animals in our care were placed in homes, reunited with owners, or released to other animal welfare organizations. We know that sometimes it’s just not possible to keep a pet. Before making the decision to surrender, please consider all of your options. Learn more about alternatives to surrendering your pet including other re-homing options. Including rodents, reptiles and amphibians that are in cage trap. There are a number of rescues that are dealing with an overwhelming amount of rats, from situations such as hoarding or being released in the wild and breeding unchecked. These rescues are in need of adopters, fosters, and donations. If you are thinking of adopting and are near one of these rescue operations (many do work out rat trains, too, so please keep that in mind), please check our Large-Scale Rescues page. Currently, these are occurring in MSPCA- Boston, MA & Waltham, MA & Methuen, MA. The best option for dealing with an unwanted pet (if you can't return it to the pet store), is to find it a new home. Use the resources listed here to locate reptile rescue groups, herpetological societies, and animal shelters they will try to help you to place your pet in a new home. You can also post a newspaper or internet ad or post fliers at local pet stores or animal shelters. Contact local science teachers and nature centers  they may want a classroom pet. Call or email Animal Control 2-8 School Street Merrimac, MA 01860.The prevalence and type of diseases in mice and rats seen in clinical practice are quite different from those seen in a research setting. The diagnosis and treatment of pet mice and rats involves evaluation and care of an individual animal from a household, not the health management of rodents from a research colony. Most problems in mice and rats are dermatopathies, respiratory infections, and neoplasia. Observing the condition of the living quarters of the mouse or rat provides useful information. Information obtained from a physical examination is often limited because of the mouse or rat’s size. Activity level, coat condition, general posture at rest, and any blood or bodily discharges in the cage should be noted. If dyspnea or depression is seen, extreme care should be used when handling the animal, because the stress of a physical examination could result in severely debilitated animal. Antibiotic therapy should be initiated at the first suspicion of infection. Due to the chronicity, long term treatment by antibiotics in the drinking water may be necessary to suppress the infection. Severely affected individuals may need injectable medications and extensive supportive care. In addition, secondary infections with other oraginsms is common, sometimes requiring the use of multiple medications. Medications presented in this section are intended to provide general information about possible treatment. The treatment for a particular condition may evolve as medical advances are made; therefore, the medications should not be considered all-inclusive. In rats, if mycoplasma is suspected or confirmed, a combination of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin and doxycycline is often given for a minimum of 2 weeks. With CRD, long-term treatment or intermittent treatment may be needed lifelong. Azithromycin can be an effective alternative antibiotic treatment. Model 460 is a small snake trap that functions as a funneling system to catch snakes for relocation. The funnel opening is a 1 ½" in diameter and can be adjusted tighter. The trap comes with a Powder Coated finish to add extra solar heat to the trap enticing snakes to enter. The trap features two 24" wings that can be extended to the sides for funneling snakes into the trap. There is also a removable back door for easy release that features a welded on sheet metal plate for added protection while removing the rear door lock. THE AMAZING SNAKE TRAP is perfect for all animal lovers! The trap allows the vermin to enter to retrieve the bait and is unable to escape. The little critter will stay in the trap enjoying his treat until you come in a safe place. It ie easily assembled with instructions in plain English. Just assemble the trap according to the directions and included zip ties. Best of all, the trap is collapsable as well as reusable! Some popular baits include sausage, eggs, and cheese. When you need relief from a pesky serpent or other small animal, this is your best solution. I live on a tidal river and have used casting nets, crab pots, etc etc. for years. I was tired of having my fishing dependent on how my casting net did as I do best with live bait. Obviously the openings in the crab pot allowed many critters to escape so it was awesome to see what I had living under my pier using this trap. Crayfish/crawdads, mini crabs, minnows, bluegull, alwifes/LY's, you name it! Stay away from those goofy traps that separate in 2 pieces. This one has a sliding door that makes baiting and removing bait easy! Use slices of cheese to catch bluegill/sunfish-they love it! Baytril is an excellent, powerful and effective drug. Unfortunately, it tends to be overused in exotic animal medicine, especially with herps. In lay herpetoculture, Baytril often is reached for as the first drug of choice, without the benefit of culture and sensitivity testing, without veterinary diagnosis of infection, and without knowledge of appropriate dosages and treatment schedules Past experience tells us that such indiscriminate and widespread use of an antibiotic risks production of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many cases, less-powerful antibiotics would be equally effective without Baytril’s cost or potential side effects. Reptaid contains a blend of herbs sourced from the highest quality herbs available to ensure the best potency for your pet. Amber NaturalZ is committed to responsible sourcing of herbs and is subject to a rigorous series of quality checks and testings. Reptaid is an herbal blend designed for reptiles (under 250 grams) to help support immune functions, upper respiratory functions, maintain eyes & mouth health, and promote a healthy appetite. For larger reptiles, use Reptaid XL. Reptaid for pets is made with premium ingredients and does not contain harmful chemicals. The herbs in Reptaid are sourced from around the world and made in the USA to ensure quality standards according to the Good Manufacturing Practices. Includes one (1 Ounce) bottle, one (1 Dram) bottle, and instructions. Reptaid XL is an herbal blend designed for immunity support in reptiles 250 grams and larger (for reptiles under 250 grams try Reptaid). Reptaid XL is made with the highest quality herbs available and pressed only one time to ensure the best potency for your pet. Each bottle comes with instructions and a 1 cc/mL syringe. Fluker's Liquid Vitamin is a multi-vitamin for your pet reptile that will reduce the likelihood of deficiencies in the diet causing problems. In captivity, reptile nutrition is often limited because the foods that are available don't meet the needs of these animals, This easy-to-use liquid vitamins minimizes the likelihood of vitamin deficiencies. this exact one for my beardie over a year. use it on his greens or bugs. Mainly bugs though because hes a picky eater with greens.  High quality liquid vitamins supplement for all reptiles.Offer 2 drops per 50g of body weight twice a week. The vitamin can either be paced directly into the mouth of the animal or placed on a food item and offered. For animals that are young and fast growing, ill, or reproductively active, Liquid Vitamin can be given 4 times per week. Shake well before using. Store in cool dry place. Poultry feeds are available with several types of medications for preventing or treating diseases. Coccidiostats and/or antibiotics are the two most common medications added to feeds. Mature chickens develop a resistance to coccidiosis if allowed to contract a mild infection of the disease. Birds raised for placement in the laying flocks are fed a coccidiostat feed until about 16 weeks of age. The medicated feed is then replaced with a nonmedicated feed. Spotty outbreaks of the disease can be controlled by treating in the water with an appropriate coccidiostat. Examples of coccidiostats added to the ration include Monensin sodium, Lasalocid, Amprolium, and Salinomycin. Antibiotics may also be added to some poultry feeds. Antibiotics aid broiler performance and maintain healthy birds. They are usually added at low (prophylactic) levels to prevent minor diseases and produce faster, more efficient growth. Higher (therapeutic) levels are usually given in water or injected into the bird. Examples of antibiotics fed in the feed are Penicillin, Bacitracin, Chlortetracycline, and Oxytetracycline.  In some cases, a specific medicine is only effective or more effective for a specific strain of a disease. If you have the opportunity to get relevant lab tests done, these can help narrow down which meds may be best to treat your bird's particular strain of a disease.Medicine classes are noted below to help identify more similar & very different drugs. If a medicine you use isn't effective enough and it becomes essential to use a second one, it is generally recommended that you choose one from a different class of medicines. Some treatments can cause decreases in disease-fighting "good bacteria" so you also may want to help replace it by feeding probiotics found in powder from acidophilus of other supplements, or in buttermilk or unflavored yogurt. Probiotics are most commonly given after antibiotic treatment, but giving probiotics during treatment is also very beneficial, though administrations of probiotics and antibiotics should be spaced at least 2 hours apart. At some point or another, every flock owner is likely to face illness in his flock.  Unfortunately, by the time the owner sees any symptoms, an illness has often existed longer than one would think and should be addressed quickly and taken seriously. Too often, when a chicken is sick, people resort to the old standard package of yellow powder as a treatment. It is time to demystify and clarify the process of treating chickens when they are sick. It is important to remember when dealing with chickens that there are many different causes of illness and they are not all treated the same.   For example a chicken “cold” could be caused by bacteria, a virus, by environmental causes, by a nutritional deficiency, or even by a digestive tract parasite.  Diarrhea could be caused by bacteria, protozoa, or by the afore-mentioned respiratory illness sinus drainage. Powdered, oral antibiotics are used when the bird most definitely has some sort of bacterial infection, often respiratory in nature. many respiratory illnesses are caused by viral infections and mistreated using antibiotics.  As it is very difficult to tell the difference between the two without a microscope, bacterial incubator, and 2-week time you must use your powers of observation to decide how to treat. If there anything other than clear, watery discharge is present, bacteria are likely at least in part to blame for the illness.  In this case, using antibiotics packaged for oral use (or injectable) are often appropriate if used correctly. Common antibiotics appropriate for this use are the mycin and cycline drugs such as Aureomycin (chlortetracycline), Terramycin (oxytetracycline), Gallimycin (erythromycin), and Duravet.  Injectable drugs include Tylan (tylosin) and others. Most oral antibiotics should be used as the only product in the water.  In other words, do not mix antibiotics and vitamins in the water as the chemicals may react with one another.  However, there are some antibiotics which work best when mixed with another and, in fact, work better together than on their own.  The combination of Sulmet and Gallimycin is such an example. Otherwise, never mix anything other than antibiotics in the water.  In the case of –cyclin/-mycin drugs, do not even feed any dairy products while using as the other chemicals will make the antibiotic essentially inactive. Any time a bird is sick, their immune system suffers.  Unlike other animals, birds are particularly vulnerable to lowered immunity because of their delicate systems and high metabolic rate.  When the body is giving everything it can to fight a disease, the very high-demand metabolic rate of the bird needs more than a normal feeding routine can provide. For any illness or injury, the oil-based vitamins (A, D, and E) will help boost healing and help strengthen the respiratory and digestive system.  Use sparingly as these can be overdosed; however, if you notice the “drench” and “saver “ products on the market always have a base of A, D, and E vitamins which is no coincidence. Learn from their decades of research and always include these products as an oral drench or treat-top-dressing at a few drops per bird when illness occurs. B-vitamins (often packaged in drenches and other emergency products) are very useful in giving ill birds pep and a desire to eat and live. If not found in a vitamin package, these can safely be given sprinkled on a food treat. Remember sometimes illnesses are caused by or result in a nutritional deficiency.   The use of vitamins during treatment of illness (even if not in the same water) can not only boost immunity but nourish a bird during their healing and possibly treat a nutritional deficiency-caused disease. Antibiotics indicated for use with respiratory illnesses are usually not effective against diarrhea and can harm the bird worse than the illness itself.  Remember, antibiotics are anti-bacterial in nature and really do no care if they kill the good along with the bad. A few antibiotics exist which can be indicated in a true case of E. coli or other bacterial diarrhea, but they are few and far between and more often given for the wrong reason so take caution!  One rare exception is Neomycin which is useful against E. coli or other fecal-matter contamination type digestive tract diseases.Probiotics, or living nutritional beneficial bacteria, can be used in conjunction with medications to help better treat diarrhea and any other digestive tract disorder. While not a medication, replacing good living bacteria into the gut allow the gut to normalize and heal more quickly.  Examples are Probios, Fast-track, or even a simple acidophilus capsule intended for human use and crushed into a quickly-eaten treat. As with digestive tract issues, antibiotics packaged for respiratory use should not be used for wounds or other external issues.  Again, using a respiratory-related antibiotic for a wound can just further harm the bird by disabling its natural good-bacteria in the digestive tract.  One, rare exception to this rule is penicillin which acts both against lower respiratory illness (note, not upper respiratory) as well as wound infections.  Baytril is another rare exception. While not a true medication, products like VetRx and other herbal remedies can help treat an ill bird if used as indicated.  In the case of VetRx while it will not cure the illness, it will help reduce inflammation in an irritated respiratory tract and make the bird feel better.  “A bird that feels better heals better” is a saying that should be noted by all poultry enthusiasts.  Sometimes these herbal products also have a sort of antiseptic property which can help other medications do their jobs better.  Often these can be used in conjunction with other medications. “Wormer” is actually a nickname used for products that kill internal parasites such as roundworms.  When buying a wormer to prevent or treat internal parasite, be careful not to use a product that also contains antibiotics unless you need that effect.  For example, there is a triple-wormer product that actually has one wormer and two antibiotics within the ingredients.  Using antibiotics without a reason can cause antibiotic resistance. As with digestive tract issues, antibiotics packaged for respiratory use should not be used for wounds or other external issues.  Again, using a respiratory-related antibiotic for a wound can just further harm the bird by disabling its natural good-bacteria in the digestive tract.  One, rare exception to this rule is penicillin which acts both against lower respiratory illness (note, not upper respiratory) as well as wound infections.  Baytril is another rare exception. seems to be more than one illness it often is actually more than one condition at the same time. Respiratory illnesses are often complicated by secondary diarrhea as the drainage from the sinuses upset the delicate balance of gut bacteria.  Fowl pox viral infections can often result in secondary respiratory illnesses as the bird’s immune system lowers and vulnerability to disease increases. In some cases, two treatments (or more if you include immune-boosters) might be necessary at the same time.  Read carefully to determine which products can or cannot be used together and do try to find an expert as soon as you can to get on the right track for treatment. In the meantime, please remember that the best treatment for illness is preventing illness. Clean air, good ventilation, sunshine, clear water, appropriate nutrition, and a closed-flock go a long way to never having to demystify poultry illness treatment! Whilst domesticated birds are not at risk from injury or disease as much as wild birds are, there is still the potential. Birds can carry and transmit disease easily, especially if they are housed together, which is often the case. Worms and parasites can occur in the most sanitary habitats, therefore it is important to treat your birds regularly with an effective de-wormer. VioVet stocks a range of non-prescription medications and supplements, as well as antiseptic solution sprays for managing injuries. Whether you have cage and aviary birds, poultry or pigeons, VioVet offers a number of treatments to help support and treat just about any complaint or affliction. There are lots of medications approved for “major species” of animals like chickens or turkeys or ducks.  There is much negative publicity about the use of drugs in treating animal disease  but in reality most farmers are very conservative about using drugs to treat their animals. At our farm, we are in the position that very few drugs have been approved for use. In some cases, we can use a drug that has been approved for use in chickens. One example of this is we need to deworm our chickens during rainy years. Our chickens get two types of parasitic worms (called gape worms or capillaria worms) and dewormers aren’t approved for major species because unlike  are raised indoors where deworming is not necessary (because chickens or turkeys won’t pick up the parasites indoors).  So even with a Veterinarian’s prescription, we can’t get the dewormer we need to treat our birds. Next week the members of the NRSP-7 are coming to our farm to take a tour of all our facilities.  This is such a positive thing not only for our farm but for the whole game bird industry.  Hopefully touring our farm will really open the eyes of the members to what a commercial game bird farm is all about. Effective administration of medicine is a key part of most veterinary treatments. given regularly and for a sufficient length of time. If medicines are not given correctly active ingredients may be lost, or poorly absorbed, which reduces the dose that the patient receives. Many medicines are designed to be given by mouth largely because this is a convenient route for owners to administer at home. Oral medicines can be given as tablets, capsules, liquids and pastes. Most medicines given by mouth enter the stomach but pass through into the intestine before they are absorbed into the blood. The presence of food in the stomach helps absorption of some drugs but prevents others from entering the body. The timing of administration of oral medication in relation to feeding can be critical. Oasis Vita-Drops are a convenient way to assure your rabbits are receiving their daily intake of vitamins that support normal growth, development, good coat condition and overall health. Oasis VitaDrops are a multi-purpose and balanced supplement formulated especially for rabbits of all breeds and ages. For Drinking Water: Add 2 drops for each 1 ounce of water. To insure freshness, change water at least every 1 to 2 days.For Food: Randomly scatter 4 drops of Vita-Drops directly onto the surface of food daily. Check to be sure that the vitaminized feed has been consumed within 24 hours.A respiratory problem can make a rabbit feel very sick. After your vet has diagnosed your rabbit with a respiratory problem, start its veterinary treatment promptly. The earlier you start treatment, the more likely your rabbit will get better. This is very important! Give your rabbit all of the antibiotic your vet prescribes, even when your rabbit starts getting better. If you stop the antibiotic treatment too early, not all of the bacteria will be killed. The remaining bacteria can build up antibiotic resistance, making it more difficult to kill them. A detailed list of rabbit-safe medicine and proper doses of each one is something that every rabbit owner needs! While there are many such lists on the internet, we have gone the extra mile to offer you the most comprehensive list possible. For these reasons, we have made our list very easy to read, understand, and find the exact types of medicines noted with what they treat, and the dosage amounts. Many veterinary medications are commercially available as tablets. These are not generally the easiest to administer, especially when dealing with a rabbit. However, there are some special bunny patients that will happily crunch up a tablet when offered as you would a treat. So, start there and we will all hope that your rabbit is one of the select few. If your bunny is unwilling to take the tablet when offered, you have a couple of options. One option is to hide the whole tablet in one of your rabbit’s favorite treats: banana, apple, seedless grape, etc. Another option is to crush the tablet and hide it in applesauce, jam, organic (fruit/veggie only) baby food, yogurt, etc. If you are crushing up the tablet, you must make sure that your rabbit eats all of the treat, so that you can ensure that the correct dose is ingested. ome veterinary specialty pharmacies also offer other forms of rabbit medication. For example, Golden Gate Veterinary Compounding Pharmacy can compound your rabbit’s medication into a flavored gummy treat. The medication is evenly distributed throughout the treat, so that your bunny will not be able to “pick” out the active ingredient. Our Exotic Gummy Treats come in a variety of fruit flavors, but our top rabbit-loving options are grape, raspberry, orange, apple and blueberry. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include enrofloxacin (brand name Baytril), trimethoprim ​sulfamethoxazole, c​​​​​hloramphenicol, metronidazole. Other safe oral antibiotics like doxycycline, azithromycin, or ciprofloxacin are sometimes given instead. Not every antibiotic will treat every ailment in every rabbit. It's always okay to ask the vet why they chose the drug they did and how they arrived at the prescribed dosage. Help keep those pellets poppin’ with Equa Holistics HealthyGut Probiotics Rabbit Supplement. Your furry friend will love the taste of this easy-to-use powder that you can add to his daily feed. And with no less than 2 billion CFUs per serving, you’ll love the satisfaction of knowing that you are taking the very best care of your bunny. These probiotic micro organisms are designed to help promote normal digestion, provide relief from stress, and aid general microbiome support. The all-natural formula is specifically made for the nutritional needs of rabbits and is free from sugars or fillers. Medication should be kept in the dark, although loss of drug activity is negligible for at least 8 hours in room light. VetRx Rabbit Remedy is an excellent, 100% natural veterinary remedy for relieving respiratory infections, colds and ear mites or ear canker for rabbits. Also relieves wheezing, colds and snuffles which, if left untreated, can progress into pneumonia. VetRx Rabbit Remedy also supports the healthy upper respiratory function of your rabbits. This products formula features the beneficial properties of Oil of Origanum, Oil of Rosemary, Camphor, and Canada Balsam, blended in a corn oil base. Ideal for use in all standard rabbit breeds that are raised commercially, for showing, or as a hobby. Sold in a 2 oz. bottle. VetRx Rabbit Remedy is for use in all standard breeds raised commercially or as pets. A few drops administered every few weeks (according to the label directions) can help relieve snuffles, pneumonia, ear mites & ear cankers. Brytin TheraBiotic 2X Probiotic Microbial Support Supplement, 60 count Help support your furry friend’s immune and digestive health with Brytin TheraBiotic 2X Probiotic Microbial Support Supplement. This formula contains heat-resistant, patented pediococcus acidilactici and saccharomyces boulardii probiotic formula and is intended for small monogastric animals such as chinchillas, guinea pigs, rabbits, hamsters, gerbils, rats, mice, prairie dogs, hedgehogs, sugar gliders and degus. Probiotics are good bacteria that helps starve out harmful microbes, which often lead to digestive issues like diarrhea, intestinal infections and even fungal infections. This supplement can be given daily and is especially great to use during times of stress like during travel, shows, littering, and illness. It can even help restore healthy microbiome during and after antibiotics. Make sure your furry friend gets the nutrition she needs with ShowBloom Rabbit Supplement & Conditioner! It’s formulated to provide rabbits and cavies with protein, vitamins and minerals. This version also has a smaller pellet size, making it extra easy for feeding. It can help control odor, encourage appetite, and support healthy muscles and digestion! Give your rabbit a tasty berry-coated treat with Vitakraft Drops with Wildberry Rabbit Treats. Treats are a great way to bond with your pet, add variety to their diet and provide mental enrichment and stimulation. Vitakraft Drops with Wildberry Rabbit Treats are made with raspberries, blackberries and blueberries and a creamy, delicious yogurt coating with no artificial colors. A good source of protein, they make an ideal daily treat or training reward. Help eliminate nasty hairballs and symptoms that can result with HairB-ez, an all-natural herbal supplement that helps unblock loose hair and keep it from forming into balls that become lodged in your rabbit’s stomach. If your rabbit is suffering from trichobezoars, or "hairballs", it is important to look in to what is causing the gastrointestinal stasis. Be sure to provide a diet high in fiber. If your bird is ill, your veterinarian may prescribe medication. Occasionally, medications can be provided in food or water. However, unless you can provide the medication inside something that can be swallowed in one gulp (for example, inside a small piece or fruit or vegetable), or your bird will accept hand feeding, controlling dosages and administration times in food or water is not very precise. Your bird may not consume enough of the medication because it does not like the taste or it simply is not hungry. In many cases, you  will instruct you to provide medication using an eye dropper or needle-less syringe. It is important to follow your veterinarian’s instructions as closely as possible regarding the amount of medication and how often it must be given. Your bird may not be very cooperative, but it is important to administer the medication with as little fuss as possible to avoid stressing the sick bird further. If you are uncertain how to give the medication, ask your veterinarian or veterinary technician to demonstrate the technique before you leave the office. First, you can condition your parrot to eat the supplement sprinkled on warm, moist food, such as a mixed vegetable or sweet fruit. Birds are drawn to warm, moist food. The advantage of this method is that your bird should be eating vegetables and fruits any way and FeatheredUp! sticks to moist food, so you know your bird is eating it. As your bird becomes accustomed to the taste, you can sprinkle the recommended dosage on a small serving of veggies that your pet likes to consume. The disadvantage is that you'll not really know if your bird consumed the proper dosage. Also, this is definitely something that you'd want to pre-teach before you need to medicate your pet. The second way that you can get your bird to take medicine or a supplement is to mix it in juice or baby food and deliver it from a syringe. The advantage of this method is that this is an excellent way to deliver the proper dosage of the product.  Plus it's a bonding experience, if properly trained. Below are pet medications that may be prescribed for birds. These medications for birds come in different dosage forms. Please include information on the symptoms or diagnosis your bird had, the product you used with links if possible, the dosage you gave to your bird and how you administered it so that people who are in a panic trying to help their sick birds can get help fast use any bird cages for quarantine if your birds have any symptoms of illness. A bird cage is a noticeable addition to your home, but they come in a variety of styles, sizes and colors to fit your décor as well as the needs of your pet. Many include rolling casters to make adjusting or moving the habitat less labor-intensive. Some models include rooftop perches and play areas. Birds, rodents, reptiles and amphibians might need terrarium tank for preventing the spread of illness if they have any illness from disease or bacteria. More reptile and small animal fans choose Zilla Critter Cage terrariums, thanks to the sliding top screen for added strength, ease of access and improved safety. Zilla Critter Cages feature an escape-resistant mesh top that opens and closes with a smooth slide and can be locked for added security. Pet comfort and health is assured by a recessed hanging space for water bottles, plus wiring ports to neatly channel heater cords. There are so many wonderful pets in your community waiting for loving homes. Put your love into action by adopting today - and spread the word that adoption is the way to go.

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