Coronavirus From Bats And Rats 1 Read Count : 67

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Bat coronavirus RaTG13 is a SARS-like betacoronavirus that infects the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis. It It was discovered in 2013 in bat droppings from a mining cave near the town of Tongguan in Mojiang county in Yunnan, China. As of 2020, it is the closest known relative of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. has been shown to feed primarily on small arthropods and small vertebrates, including fruits, beetles, moths, small mammals (including opossums and rodents), birds (including passerine birds) and even other bat species. Though primarily carnivorous or insectivorous, it has also been known to eat fruit. However, in captivity, they refused to eat fruit, indicating a preference toward meat or insects. Another unique prey item for this species are geckos. This prey item was previously thought to have been only displayed in one other species of New World bat - T. cirrhosis. Bats of this species form the natural reservoir of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus. An example of one particular strain present is Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1. Rat coronavirus, or RCV, is a strain or subspecies of Murine coronavirus that infects rats.[1] The earliest discovered strains of Rat coronavirus were Sialodacryoadenitis virus, also known as SDAV, and Parker's Rat Coronavirus (PRC). Four other substrains have since been discovered; CARS, RCV-BCMM, RCV-W and RCV-NJ. Virus is present in target tissues for about 1 week after exposure, at which time heightened antibody levels render the infection self-limiting. However, immunity is not lifelong. Under experimental conditions, it has been shown that rats are susceptible to reinfection with a homologous strain as early as 6 months after initial infection and that such rats are able to transfer infection to naive rats by cage contact. However, the severity of lesions in reinfected rats is minimal compared with those associated with primary infections (Percy et al., 1990; Weir et al., 1990). Scientific evidence clearly demonstrates that humans can pass coronaviruses and specifically COVID-19 to each other. Research also indicates that the outbreak of the novel Coronavirus started in China with transmission from animals to humans. In some parts of China, animals such as bats and rats are consumed as food and researchers suspect this to be the origin of COVID-19. At the moment, we are still learning more about the COVID-19 virus. In regards to other coronaviruses, the website Science Direct clearly states that rats can carry coronaviruses with a similar disease even being named Rat Coronavirus. Rat coronaviruses present a highly contagious transmission ability, and a sneeze by an infected rat can spread the virus dramatically. As for COVID-19, the novel coronavirus, Time reported that no one knows for sure which wild animal transmitted the pneumonia-like disease. The 2019 pandemic may have started with COVID-19 rats or perhaps civet cats or bats. Coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus with two strains identified to cause disease in rats. Rat coronavirus (RCV or Parker’s rat coronavirus) causes respiratory infection while sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) infects the upper respiratory tract, Harderian and exorbital lacrimal glands, and the submandibular and parotid salivary glands.  Pulmonary disease is possible in young rats with SDAV. Coronaviruses were widespread in some wild animal trade networks, according to a new study that highlights the increased risk of transmitting diseases such as Covid-19 to humans. Working with colleagues at the University of Zimbabwe he goes into the bat caves to collect samples and droppings from bats. Back at the lab, the scientists extract and sequence the genetic material of bat viruses. They have already discovered different coronaviruses, including one in the same family as Sars and Sars-CoV-2 The research is part of a worldwide effort to investigate the diversity and genetic make-up of the viruses that bats carry, providing the tools to react quickly, should people start to get sick. Several vaccines have been developed and several countries have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Although work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.  Rat coronaviruses may induce either asymptomatic infections or transient clinical infections (sialodacryoadenitis) associated with tissue tropisms for the salivary glands, lacrimal glands, Harderian glands, and respiratory epithelium. Outbreaks of emerging coronaviruses in the past two decades and the current pandemic of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China highlight the importance of this viral family as a zoonotic public health threat. Coronaviruses were also detected in rodents on the majority of wildlife farms sampled (60.7%, 17/28). These coronaviruses were found in the Malayan porcupines (6.0%, 20/331) and bamboo rats (6.3%, 6/96) that are raised on wildlife farms for human consumption as food. We identified six known coronaviruses in bats and rodents, clustered in three Coronaviridae genera, including the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronaviruses. Our analysis also suggested either mixing of animal excreta in the environment or interspecies transmission of coronaviruses, as both bat and avian coronaviruses were detected in rodent feces on wildlife farms. The mixing of multiple coronaviruses, and their apparent amplification along the wildlife supply chain into restaurants, suggests maximal risk for end consumers and likely underpins the mechanisms of zoonotic spillover to people. Coronaviruses were widespread in some wild animal trade networks, according to a new study that highlights the increased risk of transmitting diseases such as Covid-19 to humans. As COVID-19 blisters its way around the globe, much of the focus has been on stopping the spread of the virus and treating those who are sick. But virologists say there’s something else that deserves our focus as well—the search for future animal hosts. Experts say that it’s possible the virus could take hold in a new species and build a redoubt for reinfecting people in the future. Coronaviruses infect laboratory animals. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), which is a member of the species Murine coronavirus,[144] causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice.Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), which is a strain of the species Murine coronavirus, is highly infectious coronavirus of laboratory rats, which can be transmitted between individuals by direct contact and indirectly by aerosol. Coronaviruses are notoriously promiscuous. Bats host thousands of types without succumbing to illness, and the viruses have the potential to leap to new species. Sometimes they mutate along the way to adapt to their new host, sometimes they can make the leap without changing. Bats of this species form the natural reservoir of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus. An example of one particular strain present is Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1. On March 27 2021 Nicole Elizabeth Branconnier made 2 medical spray a coronavirus Neutralizer and immunity booster. 


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Comments

  • Mar 31, 2021

  • informative blog👍

    Mar 31, 2021

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